3765 Photosynthetic Bioenergy Utilizing CO2 from a Mexican Cement-Manufacturing Facility: A review

Sara P. Cuellar-Bermudez , Water Center for Latin America and Caribbean, Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico
Jonathan S. Garcia-Perez , Water Center for Latin America and Caribbean, Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico
Bruce E. Rittmann , Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ
Roberto Parra-Saldivar , Water Center for Latin America and Caribbean, Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico
Full Papers
  • GIN2012PaperParra.pdf (196.0 kB)
  • Justification of the paper: One of the most important industrial activities related to Green House Gases (GHG) emissions is the cement making industry that produce large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), approximately 15 million tons of CO2, 2008. GHG emissions from cement manufacturing depend on the fuel mix, energy consumption, plant technology, and other variables, and are plant-specific. In 2010 8% of CO2 global emissions were due to cement industry.  This study evaluated the use of CO2 produced by the cement manufacture process as a potential application of microalgae culture and establishes the important relationships of nutrient composition, biodiesel production and scale up parameters using different strains of cyanobacteria that can growth base on a flue gases diet. 

    Purpose: A major objective of  the project is investigating ways to produce biodiesel base on the carbon dioxide produced with the flue gases form the cement furnaces.

    Theoretical framework: This promising technology is based on the biological capture of CO2 using microalgae and cyanobacteria. These microorganisms can fix CO2 using solar energy with efficiency ten times greater than terrestrial plants. The biomass produced can also be used for high value co-products as cosmetics, human health, human and animal food, fertilizers and biofuels. This review describes the situation caused from anthropogenic activities and a sustainable solution for CO2 capture.

    Results: In 2015 CEMEX establish a target of 35% reduction of fossil fuels for alternative fuels. In 2011 they have produced 25.4 million metric tons of CO2 per 95.6 million metric tons of cement. In theory 25.4 million of tons of CO2 can be fixed with microalgae and produce approximately 12.7 million tons of biomass. Thus, with a 20% transesterified fats that can transform into 2.54 million tons of biodiesel. 

    Conclusions: . Cement Companies are responsible of high amount of CO2 delivered to the atmosphere while microalgae have shown higher CO2 capture than higher plants, therefore design a process coupled with flue gasses exhaust of cement chimneys and microalgae culture can be developed.  Additionally, microalgae produce lipids that can be transformed in biodiesel to be used in the transport sector. Design concepts, microalgae culture and species must be evaluated for this application at the same time parameters of flue gas composition and temperature. Microalgae can also be used for waste water treatment and chemistry applications complementing a biorefinery plant.