Currently large volumes of Iranian slaughterhouse wastewater, which cause huge air and water pollution problems, as well as energy and nutrient loses, are being wasted. It is feasible to use anaerobic digestion of the organic materials of them to produce methane and valuable agricultural soil nutrients. These are main justifications of this paper.
The purpose of the paper is to assess the regulatory environmental criteria for Iranian slaughterhouse operators to reduce the negative impacts of their wastewater management procedures. Then the paper explores how the ideas, approaches, technologies of bio-gas production can be used to encourage the transformation of Iranian slaughterhouse practice to become more environmentally sustainable. Although this is already done in many countries, in Iran, it is a new concept. As a consequence it is essential to develop the knowledge and skills to manufacture, install, and operate bio-gas production facilities. Of course the use of the bio-gas must also be planned and implemented. A second step is to ensure that the usage of the resultant fermentation as an agricultural fertilizer is implemented, first via pilot cases and then throughout Iran within the next decade.
This paper’s theoretical framework is sustainability policy diffusion that is used to analyze and explore the advantages and disadvantages the proposed changes. To do so, this author analyzed the policies, procedures, technologies and economics used in several industrial countries to implement the production and usage of bio-gas produced from slaughterhouse wastewater.
One of the significant drivers to foster these changes is because national leaders globally are finding it essential that they efficiently and ecologically soundly manage water, nutrients and energy. A positive aspect of the proposed ‘bio-gas production, recycling of wastewater’ and nutrient usage is that is directly linked to the triple helix of this GIN conference, because in Iran as in Sweden it requires cooperation among industries, governments and knowledge institutes.
Cooperation requires a co-evolutionary approach to effect the sustainability transitions to integrate the efforts of all elements of the meat industry including governmental and corporate policies, investments, markets and agriculture. This will help Iran as it seeks to broadly envision and implement a new ‘sustainability’ paradigm. Of course that is also essential for people of all other nations of the world, in order for all 7 billion to live in harmony on one planet within the global eco-system’s sustainable regenerative capacity.
The use of recycled wastewater, energy efficiency technologies and practices and other related approaches offer the meat industry ways to change to more ecologically and economically sound practices. In this transition, issues such as safety, nutrition, animal welfare and sustainability are discussed.
Finally opportunities and challenges facing the industry are outlined. It is concluded that the meat industry must invest in and embrace an innovative agenda in order to become more sustainable. It must utilize emerging scientific knowledge and take a more proactive role in setting out a research and application agenda.