Diffusion of clean energy technologies is an important subject in climate change negotiations. In the negotiations, technology transfer as well as financial mechanism to assist the developing countries has become a central issue. In 2010 in Cancun, the parties agreed to organize the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) and the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN). The developed countries have committed to provide $100 billion yearly to assist the developing countries in mitigation and adaptation through the Green Climate Fund. The scheme of the Fund is currently under discussion at the Transitional Committee for the design of the Green Climate Fund.
The purpose of the paper is to identify the roles of national and international institutions to overcome barriers in diffusing clean energy technologies in Asia.
This paper consists of three parts. First, it summaries the results of previous case studies that were conducted to identify barriers in diffusing clean energy technologies in Asia. These case studies include wind power development in India and China, photovoltaic panels in India, biomass power generation in the South East Asia region, and LED (Light Emitting Diode) in India. The paper classifies these barriers into technological, financial and institutional barriers. While each case uncovers different set of obstacles, some of which are technology-specific or country-specific, the paper attempts to show a broad landscape of barriers.
Second, the paper explores roles of institutions to overcome identified barriers in diffusing clear energy technologies in Asia. In innovation theory, there are research initiatives to define the functions or the roles of international and national institutions in technology innovation and transfer. In climate change negotiation, several papers are submitted to identify the roles of institutions in innovating and transferring clean energy technologies to the developing countries. An example is a study by Benioff and de Coninck in 2010 that indicates three roles of institutions including RD&D cooperation, enhancing of enabling environment, and financing facilitation and support.
Third, the paper attempts to match the barriers identified through case studies with the roles of national and international institutions. The paper reviews how the existing institutions are playing their roles in diffusing clean energy technologies in Asia. Based on the observation, the paper examines what institutional arrangements are lacking among the existing institutions and suggests necessary arrangements to overcome barriers in Asia.
As mentioned above, there are research initiatives in innovation theory to define the functions or the roles of international and national institutions in technology innovation and transfer. The definitions addressed by innovation theory are applied to explore the roles of national and international institutions in overcoming barriers in diffusing clean energy technologies in Asia.
The results of the study indicate the gap between the roles of the existing institutions and the expected roles of these institutions in overcoming barriers in technology innovation and transfer in Asia.
The study concludes that new institutional arrangements are necessary to overcome barriers in technology innovation and transfer in Asia.