The renewable energy production and use has been growing in the European Union. However, there are large differences between the EU Member countries in terms of the fossil fuel use and in the renewable energy use and growth. Moreover, there are large regional differences in the renewable energy use between the Member countries and within a Member country. The national and regional differences cannot be explained by the differences in the economic structures of the countries and regions. The renewable energy production and use is related to socio-political aims. Several regions aim at regional renewable energy development. Alongside with the renewable energy growth that is envisaged for the European Union as a whole, one can expect emergence of the regional renewable energy centres in the next decade. The business and environmental opportunities due to the policy aiming at the regional renewable energy centres are shown on the basis of a programme in the Frisian region. The study into this programme shows that the effective policy instruments are not technology grants for the investments but reduction of the investments' risks in the renewable energy and regional policy instruments in addition to the national policies such as feed-in tariffs can be found. However, the choice of policy instrument depends on the political considerations that must also take into account other priorities such as job creation in the short-term which can lead to other priorities for implementation than the risk reduction for the renewable energy investments. The paper advocates inter-regional co-operation in the area of renewable energy, which can foster policy instrumentation.