33.1 Energy City Frederikshavn: Activists and Power

Maria Ussing Larsen , Urban Planning and Management, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
The climatic changes have inspired experts to make incentives to initiate locally to reduce CO2 emissions and thereby prevent climate change. An example of such an initiative is the Energy City Frederikshavn. The goal is to have 100 percent renewable energy in 2015. The goal should be achieved by technical solutions in the municipality, but also by involving the citizens. The Energy City has made an Energy City Activist Group as a public participation project. This public participation project wants to work with and realise the ideas of the activists. The power in the activist group is investigated through “the seven ways of power” by Haugaard (2003). Public participation aspects by Arnstein (1969) are also investigated. The seven ways of power can be found in different ways in and around the activists, and the intention is to share the power between the organisers and the activists, but it has not come into force jet, because they are in the middle of the process. The powerholders are the Energy City, but their attitude towards the activists is currently diffuse and it makes power distribution inefficient.