To ascertain the different existing instruments for steering energy management and hence CO2-Managment we did a literature search in the professional databases wiso wissenschaften, ebsco host, elsevier science, ULIDAT and UFORDAT, library and literature catalogue of Sächsische Landesbibliothek Dresden. The literature search focuses on three aims. First, describing of applicable steering instruments that can reduce energy consumption in a public administration. Secondly, characterizing the steering instruments by relevant strengths and weaknesses so that decision makers can take the right decision. Applied examples from municipalities and companies are the third aim.
Furthermore we had to consider that reductions in CO2-emissions can be achieved in different fields of actions, including for example: traffic, energy consumption, public procurement, construction and redevelopment as well as local town planning or maintenance and housekeeping of public real estates. Since it would be rather misleading to intend to address all possible fields of actions at the same time, it first should be evaluated, which field of action has not been targeted so far or seems to be the most promising considering the attainable CO2-reductions and existing preconditions for each case. Therefore three fields of actions have been chosen beforehand. Firstly, the energy consumption patterns of the employees as the users of the public buildings, thus the user behaviour should be targeted. Secondly, the procurement of office equipment and IT was included, since they already contribute to as much as 40% of the energy consumption in a modern office unit (Radgen 1999: 1 or Berliner Energieagentur 2007: 5). Thirdly, investment decisions made in order to (re)build or modernize public buildings and technical equipment e. g. for heating or air-conditioning are considered. Here, the long life-span of the concerned machinery and constructions determines the future energy consumption for quite some time, making it very important to carefully consider every single possibility to save energy.
After collecting theoretical concepts we looked for appropriate practical examples. The chosen examples are innovative and successful because they score well in inter-municipal competitions like “Climate Star”, “Federal capital in climate protection”, “European Energy Trophy”. Additionally we had selected good-practice-examples and case studies that are published in connection with different relevant projects e.g. managEnergy, GreenLabelsPurchase, Procura+.
At all we present 35 steering instruments whereas 13 of them are instruments of the strategic level and 22 of them are instruments that focus on the fields of action that have chosen before. In detail we identified 6 instruments that target on user behaviour. Respectively 8 instruments tend to procurement and investment decisions. Table 1 represent all steering instruments. As mentioned above for every instrument we elucidate the instrument itself and how you can adopt it for energy saving issues, its strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore we demonstrate different practical examples.
Table 1: Steering instruments for a CO2-Management system for public authorities
|Strategic instruments||Instruments with focus on user behaviour||Instruments with focus on procurement||Instruments with focus on investment decisions|
|Overall concept, strategic objectives, key figures||Competition||Educational projects/ Information campaigns||Energy guidelines|
|Formation/ creation and description of (sustainable) products||Educational projects/ Information campaigns||Procurement directives||Integral planning|
|Contract management||Bonus scheme||Exemplary tender documents||Environmental follow-up-cost|
|Budgeting||System of duties||Calculation tools||Life Cycle Costing|
|Cost accounting||Bonus-Malus-System||Product databases||Contracting|
|Agreement on objectives||Certificate trading||Life Cycle Costing||Intracting|
|Auditing||Alliance of procurement||Conservation fond|
|Benchmarking||System of duties||Educational projects/ Information campaigns|
|Labelling/ Seal of quality|
|Energy consumption controlling|
|European energy award|
|Eco-Audit (Eco Management and Audi Scheme)|
|Municipal energy management|
CO2-Management in companies is also part of the research project “Developing and testing of an integrated regional climate adaptation programme for the metropolitan area Dresden” that have started in the mid of 2008. The main objective is the developing and testing of an integrated regional climate adaptation programme overall departments, sectors and levels for economy and society. Within this project we examine in addition to instruments for efficient energy management also questions concerning chances and risks of different branches with regard to climate change. Therefore we will develop economic scenarios on regional level and also for companies. A decision tool that contents a multiplicity of instruments and that is helpful for adapting to climate change will be one result of the research. Berliner Energieagentur (2007): Beschaffung und Klimaschutz. Leitfaden zur Beschaffung von Geräten, Beleuchtung und Strom nach den Kriterien Energieeffizienz und Klimaschutz. Berlin, 2007 [Online: www.greenlabelspurchase.net/de-green-procurement-downloads.html] Radgen, P. (1999): Die stillen Energieverbraucher, Karlsruhe, 1999 [Online: http://www.isi.fraunhofer.de/e/publikation]
Berliner Energieagentur (2007): Beschaffung und Klimaschutz. Leitfaden zur Beschaffung von Geräten, Beleuchtung und Strom nach den Kriterien Energieeffizienz und Klimaschutz. Berlin, 2007 [Online: www.greenlabelspurchase.net/de-green-procurement-downloads.html]
Radgen, P. (1999): Die stillen Energieverbraucher, Karlsruhe, 1999 [Online: http://www.isi.fraunhofer.de/e/publikation]