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An Analysis of the Potential Environmental Impact of China-Thailand Kraft Pulp Project: Scenarios analysis
Warit Jawjit
Faculty of Science and Technology (Saiyai),
Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya,
Tumyai,
Thungsong,
Nakhon si thammarat 80110,
Thailand

 Tel: +66-1-9791125
Fax: +66-75-773133
e-mail: jwarit@gmail.com

Abstract

 This study explored the potential environmental impact of a Kraft pulp project which is a joint venture between the Chinese and Thailand government (so-called “Chino-Thai project”). In 2000, Thailand’s Cabinet gave provisional approval for this project, which China would like to use area in Thailand in order to plant eucalyptus and build pulp factories for exporting the Kraft pulp to China. However, this project was delayed due to people’s opposition. Recently, a newly elected Thai government would like to continue this project again.

 Five environmental problems (global warming, acidification, eutrophication, smog and human toxicity) and overall environmental impact were investigated in five different scenarios including “Reference (current) scenario (REF)”, “Business-As-Usual scenario (BAU)”, “Total Chlorine Free scenario (TCF)”, “Zero discharge scenario (ZERO)” and “Only Eucalyptus scenario (EUCA)”(assumed that the final product of this project is harvested eucalyptus not pulp). An integrated environmental assessment model recently developed for analysing environmental impact of Kraft pulp industry was used in this study.

 The results indicated that the overall environmental impact of BAU, TCF and ZERO scenarios were about 85%, 70% and 60%, respectively, higher than that of in REF scenario. In particular, acidification and eutrophication were found to be the most important problems in REF and BAU, because they have the largest share (30% each) in the overall environmental impact. It can be observed that if the total chlorine-free bleaching technique (TCF scenario) and zero-discharge strategy (ZERO scenario) would be applied in this project, the environmental impact associated with eutrophication would be reduced by about 10% and 90%, respectively, relative to BAU scenario. In case of EUCA scenario, it was found that the overall environmental impact of this scenario was about 15% higher than that of in REF scenario, but it resulted in 40% reduction of the overall environmental impact relative to BAU scenario (producing both eucalyptus and pulp).

 
Full Paper (.doc format, 169.0 kb)

Program
9:00 AM-5:00 PM, Thursday, June 26, 2008, Oral

The Netherlands, 2008 Meeting