- Organisation creating
Organisation operationalis ing
|Movement aspect||Numerical aspect||Spacial aspect||Biotic aspect||Physical aspect|
|- motivation of all employ ees to strive for decent values, norms and goals |
- what and how can each individual worker contribute to sustainable development? Wisdom
|- measurable goals for chosen policy aspects|
-Performance indicators for critical success factors
- dematerialization, reuse and loop closure = sober-ness = limits to growth
|- efficiently furbished, humane and environmental ly friendly factories|
- building compact
- transparent structures,
systems and processes - integration into natural processes (eco-technology)
|- osha demands|
- health, safety, security
- inter-company relations - relations with nature & neighbours
|- applied techniques and technologies (closed loop)|
- used machines, materials buildings and other means - utilised raw materials (fossil or renewable) - take back and reuse of obsolete products/package
Organisation dynamics creating
|Sensitive aspect||Analytic aspect||Communication aspect||Creative aspect||Economic aspect|
|- sensitivity for trends and developments in market, organisations and society and to translate this in strategy and policy, incl. - sustainable development|
- preparedness to change and to learn
|-Performance indicators: financial, operational, environment, social, ethical, quality|
-Transparent annual report with results vs goals + future plans - plan - do - check - act
|- internal (WC) and external stakeholder communication |
- adequate information and feed back processes
- complaints procedures
- contacts with chain partners and branche co´s - partnerships universities
|- involve employees in process improvements, policy and decision making, sharing benefits|
- stimulation innovation of processes, products, organisation
- sustainability plans
|- investment/profit criteria|
- efficiency standards
- financing modes
- emission trade, env. cost
- pollut. prevention pays?
- remuneration managemt
- profit sharing employees
- (product) stewardship
|Moral aspect||Sense aspect||Harmony aspect||Social aspect||Legal aspect|
|-management + personnel formulate vision and mission with values and norms for internal and external ethical behaviour |
- serving leadership
- role model CEO
|- ethical code for managers & employees|
- Satisfaction research internal/external, incl. follow-up improvement
- personal development plans for all employees
|-organogram + management style based on wholeness of creation, mankind and his destiny|
- how to deal with internal & external stakeholders?
|- absence management|
- quality of service
- competence focussed management
- reputation management
- co-decision employees
- assessment of managers
|-righteous & transparent contracts for wages,prices compensations, lay-offs|
- permits & sanctions
1. Three viewpoints can be distinguished regarding organisations (Camp, P. De kracht van de matrix, Contact Amsterdam).
2. Technical viewpoint: activities for which (design, construction, operational) guidelines + procedures have to be followed.
3. Political viewpoint: this involves activities related to power relations and company policy.
4. Cultural viewpoint: this includes activities related tp organisation culture, habits and prevailing values and norms.
5. De 15 aspects of the structure doctrine of H. Dooyeweerd (Wijsbegeerte der Wetsidee) are spread over the 15 matrix fields.
6. Each field contains a preliminary characterisation (the challenge is to complete this with relevant notions)
7. The original scheme was designed by Dirk van de Lagemaat (2003=). S. Haverhoek added sustainability aspects.
MODAL ASPECTS AND SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP
According to the Dooyeweerd a company is a co-ordinated community with a historically founded function and in most cases economically qualified, but with all other modal aspects present. What the economic aspect exactly means is subject to debate between what Dooyeweerd has claimed and what particularly Goudzwaard and Haan have commented. According to Dooyeweerd is the foundational meaning of economy the frugal mode of administering scarce goods, implying an alternative choice of their destination with regard to the satisfaction of different human needs. Economy demands the balancing of needs according to a plan, and the distribution of the scarce means at our disposal according to such a plan. In this fundamental sense the term is used in the science of economics, in which the word economy required no further modal qualification. Goudzwaard and Haan both advocate the addition of normative elements into the economic aspect. For Goudzwaard this normative aspect is reflected in the term stewardship. Haan emphasises the relation between the economic and the social aspect. These elements are typical for sustainable development.
The EFQM (European Federation of Quality Management) model has been developed to assist manufacturing and service companies in structuring all conceivable aspects of their business in order to allow the application of a detailed quality improvement process, known as the Deming cycle (plan - do - check - act). In the assumption that the theory of Dooyeweerd would also apply to companies Van de Lagemaat discovered that the 15 modal aspects of the structure doctrine of Dooyeweerd could be fitted remarkably well into an EFQM matrix. According to the philosophy of Dooyeweerd business, which involves an essentially economically qualified human activity, has to contribute to the destiny of creation, which is to the glory of God the Creator and to the benefit (quality of life) of mankind. Thus contributing to and ultimately culminating into the Kingdom of God. It is a well-known fact that business people in the present secular and capitalistic societies hardly regard their business as an instrument in Gods hand to bring His creation to perfection (the Kingdom of God). Business is in the first place regarded as a means to make money, be it within certain rules and regulations, and not to serve any higher other purpose such as mentioned above. However, since World War II we see a strongly increasing world population, a growing gap between the rich and the poor, increasing unemployment, dwindling sources of essential raw materials, mounting pollution of soil, water and air. It is becoming evident that the industrialised world has to curb its excessive and polluting production and consumption lifestyle towards a more sustainable development. It would be a challenging thought if the structure doctrine of Dooyeweerd, which has its roots in the Bible, could provide fundamental ideas to contribute to sustainable development and for our case could provide guidelines for sustainable corporate business.
An analytical framework as the matrix presented is an attempt to identify the actions entrepreneurs could take in order to return to the road of sustainable development.
For each (business) aspect relevant sub-elements have been identified that may contribute to business improvements towards sustainable development. In that sense the matrix can be utilised as a check-list for sustainable development.
The contribution of companies to sustainable development, also often referred to as corporate social responsibility or sustainable entrepreneurship, relates not only to their products, services and processes and their impacts on the raw material resource situation and the environment, but also to the social impact in the broadest sense. To safeguard the continuity of the enterprise a decent and healthy profit is required. Additionally, a good relationship with all stakeholders (internal as well as external) and a decent behaviour along the total product chain with respect to social and environmental impacts, are important. The basic idea of sustainable entrepreneurship is that the company is structurally striving for a responsible balance between its business interests, the interests of all stakeholders involved and the ecological carrying capacity (a balance between people, planet and profit). A responsible balance in the triple P is required in order not to deprive future generations from the possibilities of meeting their needs.
What a responsible and acceptable balance between the three P´s would be remains to be seen. It requires a new and critical vision with respect to the purpose of business and the role of people in the product chain, which kind of products and services fit into the sustainable development concept and the way these products are made and services rendered.
In this short note I would like to draw attention to the fact that creation itself provides eye openers for sustainable actions to be taken by business people. Some of those ideas have been added to the matrix.
With regard to manufacturing processes it can be stated that more is needed than process and product optimisation. Due to the limiting resources of fossil and non-renewable raw materials we have to shift our manufacturing basis towards renewable resources based on natural processes such as photosynthesis of biomass, wind and water power generation. Natural processes of creation could provide us with creative ideas how useful products can be produced in an energy efficient and non-polluting way and how these products can be taken up into closed loop processes after their useful life. Waste is in this concept again a raw material for the next process. Take back, recycling and reuse of all kinds of materials can thus contribute to a process of diminishing our reliance on raw materials. However, dematerialization is again one step further. That requires innovation of design. But we should critically examine our wasteful consumption behaviour in the first place, particularly those products that are not necessarily contributing to quality of life and are produced in huge quantities. We see already an interesting trend that some products are being manufactured smaller and smaller (computers, screens, cameras, cars, etc.), but due to lower costs their quantities increase at the same time (rebound effect).
A new relation with our suppliers, clients and customers is needed, as well as a new mentality and awareness of consumers. For a change in mentality also the created nature provides an interesting example for mankind with respect to community, connectedness and co-operation. These features of ecosystems are in sharp contrast with the present dominant social paradigms of neo-liberalism such as individualism, distrust and competition.
Arie de Geus (ex-Shell) has suggested in his book ´The Living Enterprise´ to take a more organic point of view for a company. Like living organisms an enterprise should have the intrinsic capability to adapt and to change with altering circumstances. According to De Geus is sustainable entrepreneurship for a company to live in harmony with the outside world. The ultimate test would be how a company will anticipate upon developments that challenge or affect this harmony. It is a matter of taking swift decisions, painful if needed, in order to redress the disturbed relation with the outside world. This means learning by adapting, a lesson that nature learned long ago and is known as successful evolution. A living enterprise has one advantage above ecosystems: people that constitute the company have the ability to learn by building up knowledge and experience. Unfortunately a lot of knowledge remains unutilised by an inadequate organisation model.
Elements that play a part in a ´return to nature´ are openness, transparency, co-operation and participation. This means that companies are increasingly prepared (1) to accept accountability towards all the stakeholders and not only to shareholders, (2) to change and to adapt to a globalising world, (3) to actively pursue chain management accountability, (4) to develop employees and involve them in decision making processes, (5) to stimulate internal and external client/customer orientation. All these trends and development contain organisational aspects.
Organisation models such as the mini-enterprise, business process re-engineering and the living enterprise, that include participation of and quality of life of employee,s could support to a large extent these trend toward a more sustainable business and thus to a more sustainable society. This in contrast with the scientific management approach of Taylorism, in which employees are seen as machines that can be optimised.