An analysis of the environmental pressure of eucalyptus-based kraft pulp industry in Thailand
Warit Jawjit, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
This study focuses on the environmental impact of kraft pulp industry in Thailand. The objective of this study is to identify the most important sources of greenhouse gases, acidifying and eutrophying compounds in kraft pulp industry system, which divided to two subsystems: eucalyptus forestry system and kraft pulp production system. Eucalyptus forestry system includes breeding, plantation, harvesting and transportation. Kraft pulp production system includes pulp production process and utilities such as electricity generation unit, chemical recovery unit. The possibilities for reducing these environmental impacts by selected reduction options are also analyzed. Results indicated that, in general, pulp production system emissions exceed eucalyptus forestry system. The important sources of greenhouse gas are lime klin process in chemical recovery unit and fuel combustion, which contribute about 48.6% and 26.3% respectively to the total greenhouse gas emission. Total greenhouse gas emission is + 114,596.8 ton CO2 – eq/ year whereas total CO2 sequestration by eucalyptus is – 578,451 ton CO2-eq/ year. Net CO2 –eq/ year for this system is –463,854.1 ton CO2-eq/ year. Pulp production process and phosphorus in effluent are the most important sources of acidifying emission and eutrophying emission respectively. They contributed about 81.1% and 53.6% respectively to the total emission. This study also describes a model for quantifying the environmental impact of kraft pulp industry, which can be used to evaluate the effect of combinations of technical options to reduce the environmental impact.
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